1. Journals
  2. IJSTT

International Journal of Sustainable Transportation Technology

ISSN 2620-4754 (Online)

ISSN 2655-7975 (Print)

Submit Article




Institut Teknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha No.10, Kota Bandung Jawa Barat 40132


IJSTT is an innovative open access journal for high-quality research in transportation and infrastructure system by focusing particularly on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research. IJSTT welcomes submissions from all disciplines, including physics, chemistry, engineering and related fields. The journal represents a community-oriented approach to communicating science driven by the needs of scientists and aims to facilitate the flow of knowledge between and beyond these communities.


This journal seeks articles related to the transportation and infrastructure technology. Its scope will include the following topics (but not limited to):

  • Transportation and infrastructure system
  • Electrical and combustion vehicle system
  • Transportation and infrastructure safety
  • Socio-economic and environmental impact of transportation policy
  • Manufacturing and supply chain process in automotive industries
  • Computational materials science and modelling
  • Design and construction for transportation system

and such other topics as the Editors may deem appropriate. Articles need to make a significant contribution to the theoretical and or methodological literature on the subject and contain a strong knowledge component.

IJSTT welcomes submissions of the following article types: Short communication paper (Letters), Technical Paper, Original Research Paper and Topical Reviews.

Latest Issues

All Issues
Vol 3, Issue 2

Article is not available

original research article

Quasi-static Compressive Properties and Behavior of Single-cell Miura Origami Column Fabricated by 3D Printed PLA Material

Farid Triawan, Geraldy Cahya Denatra, Djati Wibowo Djamari

The study of a thin-walled column structure has gained much attention due to its potential in many engineering applications, such as the crash box of a car. A thin-walled square column usually exhibits high initial peak force, which may become very dangerous to the driver or passenger. To address this issue, introducing some shape patterns, e.g., origami folding pattern, to the column may become a solution. The present work investigates the compressive properties and behavior of a square box column structure which adopts the Miura origami folding pattern. Several test pieces of single-cell Miura origami column with varying folding angle and layer height are fabricated by a 3D printer. The filament is made of Polylactic Acid (PLA), which is a brittle material. Then, compression tests are carried out to understand its compressive mechanical properties and behavior. The results show that introducing a Miura origami pattern to form a thin-walled square column can dramatically lower down the initial peak stress by 96.82% and, at the same time, increase its ductility, which eventually improves the energy absorption capacity by 61.68% despite the brittle fracture behavior.
original research article

Optimization of Longitudinal Control of an Autonomous Vehicle using Flower Pollination Algorithm based on Data-driven Approach

Fadillah Adamsyah Ma'ani, Yul Yunazwin Nazaruddin

Some challenges in the development of autonomous vehicles, such as generating a model representing the dynamics of the speed, designing a longitudinal controller, and the optimization method, are still explored until now. In this paper, a longitudinal controller based on the proportional-integral-derivative controller with an additional feedforward term is proposed, where the Flower Pollination Algorithm is employed for optimizing the controller. The feed-forward term and the model used in the optimization are generated using the data-driven approach. For the optimization, a cost function considering mean absolute error and mean absolute jerk will be minimized. The simulation study was performed using the CARLA simulator, and the results show that the proposed scheme represents the dynamics of the speed very well inside the range of the training data and does not overfit the training data. It is also demonstrated that the proposed longitudinal controller can track the desired speed satisfactorily in a non-straight path.
original research article

Al Ions Doping Effect on The Diffusion Coefficient and Capacity of Li4Ti5O12 (Lithium Titanate, LTO) in Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

Slamet Priyono, Lufthansyah Daniswara, Rahma Alfia Khoiri, Yayuk Astuti

Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode doped with Al ions with varying concentrations (Al = 0; 0.005; 0.015; 0.03; 0.045) was successfully synthesized using the sol-gel method. Al-doped LTO samples were obtained through the sintering of gel at 850oC for 4 hours under a normal atmosphere. Electrochemical performance such as charge-discharge capacity and diffusion coefficient were characterized using an automatic battery cycler. The cells consist of electrode sheets (LTO doping Al) as a working electrode, lithium metal as the counter electrode, Celgard film as the separator, and LiPF6 as an electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry test results show that a greater scan rate results in decreased capacity and greater polarization voltage. In addition, an increase in concentrations used in Al doping on LTO causes capacity, and the diffusion coefficient tends to decrease.
original research article

Highway Failure and Their Maintenance: A Study of Rajshahi Metropolitan City, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Mehedi Hasan, Mohd. Abdus Sobhan

Total length of paved road in Rajshahi City is about 186.64 km (2011 census). It shows that about 23% of total road lengths are present in failure condition. This study shows an investigation to compute the flexible pavement’s failure types, to define and identify the causes, and select the best maintenance for that failures of flexible pavement within Rajshahi City. There are many types of failures occur on the roads such as different types of cracks, potholes, raveling, water bleeding, corrugation and shoving, depression, and rutting. The possible causes of flexible pavement failures are improper bituminous mixes with poor quality of materials, heavy traffic loads, heavy rainfall, and bad drainage on pavement. The failures are gradually raised due to lack of proper planning, inspection, and treatment. These failures create different types of disadvantages like traffic jam, discomfort to the passengers as well as drivers, increasing vehicle operating, maintenance cost, etc. This study proves that the authorities practice maintenance procedures to repair the failures of pavement which are about 60% similar to the conventional road maintenance procedures. The authorities as Roads and Highway Department and Rajshahi City Corporation are suggested to do maintenance according to the requirements of urgent maintenance and availability of fund which is found in this investigation.
original research article

Foldable Front Child-Seat Design for Scooter Motorcycle: Strength Analysis Under Static and Dynamic Loading

Siti Zulaikah, Wahyu Haykal Rahmanda, Farid Triawan

Nowadays, motorcycle is considered as one of the most practical transportation mode in Indonesia. It has become a common practice that a motorcycle rider often brings a small child using a child seat while riding. However, the used child seat is usually not safe and can easily fall off from the motorcycle due to the lack of safety consideration. Moreover, it is very risky to ride a motorcycle with a small child, knowing that motorcycles are the highest contributor to road traffic accidents. For this reason, this paper proposes a primary design idea of a foldable child safety-seat that can be placed on the front part of a scooter motorcycle. This design is also completed with strength analysis to evaluate the components’ safety for children under five years old with a weight of around 50 kg. The strength calculation of the frame is done by a theoretical approach under static and dynamic loading. According to the analysis, the proposed child seat design could provide a factor of safety of more than 3.6 for static loading and 1.6 for dynamic loading. This study is expected to be used as a reference for developing a more reliable child safety- seat for motorcycle rider in Indonesia.
Vol 3, Issue 1

Article is not available

original research article

The Correlation between Toll Road Development and the Improvement of Local Economy (Case Study: The Soroja Toll Road)

Lisna Rahayu, Desiree Marlyn Kipuw

Most studies assume that road development will improve the economy in the region, as reflected by an increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, GDP is macro in nature and tends to be biased if we ask who benefits from its increase. To identify whether road development has a positive correlation with the improvement of local economy, hence this study was conducted in a micro context by taking the development of the Soroja Toll Road in Indonesia as a case study. With a length of 10.57 km, connecting Bandung Regency and Bandung City, the newly constructed Soroja Toll Road has a strategic function in supporting activities in the Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA) and is predicted giving implication on increasing Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) profit surrounding its corridor. However, a toll road cannot entirely be seen as a public goods, because not all people have access to this type of infrastructure. Only the users of four-wheeled vehicles and those who can afford to pay the toll charge can access the toll road. This study was aimed at identifying the correlation between the developments of the Soroja Toll Road with the improvement of local economy (SMEs) in its surrounding areas. Based on the analysis result, this study indicates that the presence of the Soroja Toll Road had a bigger positive correlation with the increased profit of medium-sized industries than small-sized industries due to their ability to capture a broader market.
original research article

Influence of Braking Strategies for Electric Trike Energy Consumption

Metha Islameka, Christopher Fernaldy Kusuma, Bentang Arief Budiman

This research aims to investigate the effect of applying braking strategies to the energy consumption of electric trike (e-trike). E-trike is a three-wheeled vehicle that is designed for goods delivery. A simulation is carried out to find the specific electric energy consumption in terms of km/kWh. The simulation is conducted by developing an energy consumption model using Matlab/Simulink software. The input data used in the simulation is obtained from the e-trike specification designed by Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) researchers. The output is the battery State of Charge (SOC) and energy required for the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) driving cycle. Four different braking strategies are implemented in the simulation, namely full mechanical braking, serial regenerative braking, parallel regenerative braking, and modified braking strategies. The simulation results show that by applying the modified braking strategy, greater savings of energy can be achieved. Full mechanical braking strategy can achieve energy savings of 19.2 km/kWh whereas the modified braking strategy generates 20 km/kWh. These results indicate that the application of modified braking strategies can significantly increase the e-trike mileage.
original research article

Design and Simulation of Two-Wheeled Balancing Mobile Robot with PID Controller

Vicky Mudeng, Barokatun Hassanah, Yun Tonce Kusuma Priyanto, Okcy Saputra

Mobile transportation robots using two wheels have now been investigated. The work within this study is to design and simulate two-wheeled robots, thus it can maintain its balance. Many control methods are used to determine satisfactory control optimization, therefore a proper response is obtained by sensor recitation corresponding with the reaction of a Direct Current (DC) motor. Recently, two-wheeled transportation robot is a Segway model. In this study, we apply a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller as a control system in a self-balancing robot with a working principle is similar to an inverted pendulum. In the next study, the PID controller and the whole system are applied in the microcontroller board. The angular velocity of two DC motors used as a plant can be adjusted by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) through a motor driver. An Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor is utilized to detect the angular acceleration and angular velocity of the self-balancing robot. The phase design is constructed by planning the robot dimension, mechanical system, and an electronic system. Particularly, this study performs mathematical modeling of the robot system to obtain the transfer function. In addition, we simulate the PID parameter with multiplication between the basic parameter and several fixed constants. The simulation results indicate that the robot can maintain its balance and remains perpendicularly stable for balancing itself.
review article

A Review of Range Extender Technologies in Electric Vehicles

Evelyn Evelyn, Abd. Rashid Abd. Aziz, Poetro Lebdo Sambegoro

With the increasing global concern on negative environmental effect from the transportation sector, conventional automobile technologies will not be viable for much longer. Countries like the EU and China have introduced emission related regulations which are stricter than ever. This has compelled automotive manufacturer to turn to Electric Vehicles (EV) as the most effective solution to this issue. There are mainly two types of EV, namely Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). Both has its own strength and shortcomings, BEV with zero emission but limited range while HEV has better range at the expense of higher emission. Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV) provides a midpoint between these options. This option provides the best of both worlds by allowing users to switch between both systems depending on the vehicle’s operating condition. This paper aims to presents a variety of Range Extender (RE) configurations based on its working principle and type of fuel used. Internal combustion engine, fuel cell, and microturbine are what RE is commonly powered by. The advantages and disadvantages are evaluated and compared to determine the optimal option. It was concluded that depending on fuel availability, space, and efficiency requirement, each configuration has its own merit.
original research article

Improving the Accessibility of the West Java Southern Area through Collector Road Widening

Andrean Maulana, Muhammad Farda

This study assesses the impact of the road segment widening in the southern area of West Java Island. The resulting network performance is measured by volume capacity ratio, network average speed, aggregate travel distance and time. The network 4-step modeling approach was used for the analysis and data on traffic counts and average speed are used to validate the model. The study proceeds two scenarios for the analysis, namely the do-nothing scenario, in which no road widening occurs, and the do-something scenario where the road widening is carried out. The result shows that widening the road segments will contribute to improving accessibility in the area, which is reflected by lower volume capacity ratio and higher average network speed. This study also triggers a research question on alternative transport modes to improve accessibility in the southern area of West Java.
Issue is not available in this Volume
Vol 2, Issue 2

Article is not available

original research article

The Effects of Grain Size, Oxidizers and Catalysts on Band Gap Energy of Gelam-Wood Carbon

Nirwan Syarif, Dedi Rohendi, Sri Haryati, Claudia Kartika Sari Dewi

The research of the effects of grain size, oxidizers, and catalysts on band gap energy of gelam-wood carbon has been conducted in which the carbons were produced from gelam-wood pyrolysis in high temperatures. The instrumentations used in this study were UV-Vis, FTIR spectrophotometer, and SEM. SEM and FTIR were used to characterize the morphology and the functionality of the carbon surface. UV-Vis spectrograms showed that the electronic property of carbon such as band gap was affected when grain size and surface area were changed. The increase of the functional groups in carbon occurred as the surface area of the carbon was increased. Band gap energy of crystalline carbon became much lower along with the increase in grain size due to the effects of bands-broadening. FTIR spectrograms showed that the carbon contained of hydroxyl and carboxylic groups. The hydroxyls were derived from steam-oxidized carbon that was provided narrower in the interlayer distance and lower-set band gap energy. Carboxylic groups were derived from acid nitric oxidation causing flat layer to become curved. The layers were wider and the band energy was higher. The main factor that affects the electronic structure of metal oxide in carbon/metal oxide composites was atomic alignments. The band gap energy increased along with the increase of the asymmetry alignments in metal oxide.
original research article

Electrochemical Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery with Anode of Layer-Reduced Biocarbon and Cathode of LiFePO4

Nirwan Syarif, Dedi Rohendi, Nyimas Febrika Sya'baniah

The application of reduced carbon anode layer and LiFePO4 cathode was conducted in laboratory-scale battery. Both electrodes were fabricated into lithium - ion battery with LiCl electrolyte in both gel and liquid based. The carbon was prepared by using Hummer method and solvent sonification to exfoliate the carbon layer from biocarbon. The battery performance tests were carried out in potentiostat for Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic measurements. The highest current of CV measurement can be obtained in the battery with reduced carbon layer anode and 20% of liquid electrolyte. It was calculated that the same battery produced the highest energy and power. Current - Voltage profile is relatively stable in CV of batteries with 40% electrolytes in both gel and liquid media. All batteries have two peaks in both anodic and cathodic. The reduction peaks show in around 0.5 and 1.5 volts. The cathodics show in around –0.5 and –1.5 volts. The best power and energy values are given by battery with rCNSO anode and 20% liquid electrolyte. Galvanostatic profiles show that the 40% electrolytes in the batteries produces a slower discharging process. It was revealed that applying anode of layer reduced biocarbon as the battery electrode caused the discharging to run faster. The highest slope value of the galvanostatic curve can be found in the battery with the electrode of oxidized starting material and 40% of gel electrolyte, while the lowest can be found in 20% gel electrolyte with the same electrode.
review article

Battery Cells for Electric Vehicles

Putri Nur Halimah, Samuel Rahardian, Bentang Arief Budiman

The shifting trend of conventional to the electric drivetrain in automotive industries makes batteries become the most favorable energy storage. There are three types of battery cells that are commonly used for electric vehicles i.e., cylindrical cells, pouch cells, and prismatic cells. The use of active material such as lithium-ion in the battery of electric vehicles could bring some issues related to the safety field. For that reason, comprehensive research on battery failure analysis needs to be conducted. This paper reviews the recent progress of the use of battery cells in electric vehicles and some challenges which must be considered to assure their safety. There are a lot of studies on battery failure analysis, which mainly focuses on the appearance of a short circuit as the main cause of the thermal runaway event. Several proposals on predicting short circuits in the battery due to various loading are comprehensively discussed. Those research results can be considered to establish regulations in designing battery protectors.
original research article

An Innovative Design of Magnetorheological Lateral Damper for Secondary Suspension of a Train

Aji Masa'id, Ubaidillah Ubaidillah, Bhre Wangsa Lenggana, Nurul Muhayat, Wibowo Wibowo, Saiful Amri Mazlan

This article delivered an innovative idea of a magnetorheological (MR) damper for secondary suspension of train bogie. The valve inside MR damper adopted meandering of both fluid flow and magnetic flux for improving magnetization area. In this work, the design and working principle of the MR valve were presented including a mathematical model to predict the pressure drop. In the early stage, the finite element method magnetics software (FEMM) simulation could predict the magnetic flux density across the passages. Based on the amount of magnetic flux, the corresponding shear yield stress could be determined from its basic physical properties. The mathematical model covered pressure drop prediction for both off-state and on-state. The FEMM simulation results showed that the meandering flow and serpentine flux design could improve the effective area of magnetization. Consequently, the pressure drop of the valve could have wider ranges and achieve a high value of pressure differences. This result could be potentially improving the performance of the damping forces of the lateral damper in a bogie train.
original research article

Analysis of Feeder Needs to Support the Implementation of LRT in Palembang

Joni Arliansyah

Palembang City in August 2018 was the first city in Indonesia which operated a mass transit of Light Rail Transit (LRT). LRT in Palembang City has a length of 23 km and 13 stations that stretch from the Airport station to the DJKA station. In its first year of operation, it was noted that the number of passengers using LRT was still very small, some efforts were needed to increase the number of LRT passengers. This study aimed to increase the number of LRT passengers by analyzing the development of the feeder line, the potential for increasing the number of passengers, and the infrastructure needs to support LRT operations in Palembang. The results show that four stations have the potential to develop feeder lanes, namely Asrama Haji station, RSUD station, Garuda Dempo station, and Polresta station, with the increased total number of potential passengers of 1460 passengers/day. The supporting infrastructure needed to support movement using LRT consists of a park and ride facilities, pedestrian bridges, the construction and repair of pedestrian facilities, and drop-off and pick-up facilities.
Vol 2, Issue 1

Article is not available

original research article

Module Stabilizing of Biocarbon Based Electrochemical Capacitor

Nirwan Syarif, Dedi Rohendi, Wulandari Sudarsono, Wai Yin Wong

One of the disadvantages of the electrochemical capacitor (EC) or supercapacitor compared with batteries is its low specific energy. It limits of EC to meet the energy needs of the electrical-electronic devices, such as electric cars. To overcome those limitations, it needs a serial circuit to increase the voltage range, and parallel circuits to increase the storage capacity. Practically, the module that built from 2-6 pieces of 2.5V EC cells will not feasible to make the module with the voltage of 5-15 V. It was found that the voltage of the EC cell could decreases to about 2.0 V, so that the capacitance of the module significantly reduced. This paper reports the basic methods that can be applied to overcome these problems by using a stabilizing or balancing component. The balancing components used in this study were a resistor, a Zener diode, and a Schottky diode. Each component was attached to every EC cell. The influence of the Zener and Schottky diode was observed as a component of a blocking diode. The results showed that the use of a 100-ohm resistor and Zener diode reduces voltage peaks while the use of blocking diode modules leads to increased discharge time. In general, there was no significant change in the charging time, both with and without the balancing and blocking component.
original research article

Evaluation of Motorcycle Energy Consumption in Urban Traffic

Stepan Pance, Daniel Piskac, Adam Bures, Antonin Voldrich, Maros Kovac, Bentang Arief Budiman

This paper aims to evaluate the energy consumption of motorcycle operating in urban traffic. Position, speed, and elevation in each time segment are collected by GPS - tracking data from the journey of motorcycle Honda Verza 150 in Bandung city. The distance, acceleration, and required tractive force for the motorcycle motion are then calculated. Furthermore, the energy consumption is investigated by modeling the motorcycle and calculating tractive force from the force equilibrium. For each time segment, engaged gear is then proposed for the best energy efficiency. The relationship among speed, required tractive force, and shifted gear according to time and distance are comprehensively discussed.
original research article

Calibration of Traffic Incident Simulation Models Using Field Data

Semuel Y. R. Rompis, Filmon G Habtemichael

This study presents a methodology to calibrate a traffic incident simulation model, particularly in a freeway. The queue length was used as the objective of the simulation model calibration in this study. The simulation model was set up using Traffic Simulation Model PTV. VISSIM. Multiple incident durations were simulated, and the generated queue lengths were compared to the observed queue lengths. The observed queue lengths were estimated using the LWR model and shockwave speeds calculated using the field data. The results confirm that calibrated VISSIM incident model can signify the shockwave propagation speeds and queue length in the event of freeway incident. Such a model can be implemented as an instrument for setting up traffic management strategies to alleviate the incident’s impact.
original research article

Network Analysis of Intercity Bus Terminal and Inner-City Toll Road Development – The Case of Bandung City

Kardina Nawassa Setyo Ayuningtyas, Russ Bona Frazila, Sony Sulaksono Wibowo, Widyarini Weningtyas, Muhammad Farda

This paper explores the impact of Gedebage Terminal development to traffic performance in Bandung City, as well as the development of the inner-city toll road that connects eastern and western part of Bandung City. In addition, the study also analyzes the potential of minibus / public transport route that connects three terminals, namely Gedebage, Cicaheum and Leuwipanjang Terminal, in Bandung City. The study is carried out by using the 4-step modeling principle, by utilizing EMME/4 software. According to the analysis, the development of inner-city toll road will impact the city’s road performance significantly. On the other hand, the development of Gedebage Terminal as a terminal that serves intercity travel replacing Cicaheum Terminal will influence road network performance around the terminal in terms of traffic flow, vehicle speed and volume capacity ratio. The analysis results also suggest that the addition of public transport fleet with high capacity, such as bus, that connects the bus terminals is necessary to support public transport performance in Bandung City.
original research article

Optimal Power Flow with Considering Voltage Stability using Chaotic Firefly Algorithm

Yun Tonce Kusuma Priyanto, Vicky Mudeng, Muhammad Robith

In transportation technology, the development of electric vehicle is growing rapidly. In the future, the availability of electrical power is crucial because every electric tool needs electrical power. Power plant must provide electrical power for all consumer include an electric vehicle. Sustainability of electrical power transmission and distribution must be considered as critical due to its high power consumption in the community. One of the problem to supply electrical power is how to keep the system’s voltage stability. Several variations on the load pattern and topological can lead to a substantial poor impact on the system. However, generation cost must be considered by utilities’ operator. This paper demonstrates a recently developed metaheuristic method called Chaotic Firefly Algorithm (CFA). Our simulation shows that this method may perform better than several well-known metaheuristic methods. Therefore, CFA may become a promising method to solve optimal power flow considering voltage stability cases.
Issue is not available in this Volume
Vol 1, Issue 2

Article is not available

review article

A Review on Production of Hydrogen from Renewable Sources and Applications for Fuel Cell Vehicles

Dedi Rohendi, Dea Radestia Rahmah, Dwi Hawa Yulianti, Icha Amelia, Nyimas Febrika Sya'baniah, Nirwan Syarif, Addy Rachmat

Hydrogen gas is an energy carrier that has many advantages, including energy density for high mass and environmentally friendly. Hydrogen can be produced from various sources by numerous methods. Hydrogen production from renewable sources is interesting, due to the sustainable and inexpensive supply of the raw materials. Among the sources of renewable raw materials for hydrogen production are water and biomass with various production methods. It consists of the electrolysis of water with acidic and basic conditions, as well as thermochemical and biochemical biomass conversion.
review article

Review of Switched Reluctance Motor Control for Acoustic Noise and Vibration Reduction

Jihad Furqani, Agus Purwadi

Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is one of the candidates for substituting permanent magnet motor in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) application. Compared to permanent magnet motor, SRM is relatively low cost, robust, high reliability, and possible for high-temperature operation because of the absence of permanent magnet. One significant problem in SRM is the high acoustic noise and vibration. The vibration in SRM is caused by the radial forces acting at the stator teeth. Because of the saliency pole configuration in SRM, vibration is prominent. Many studies tried to reduce acoustic noise and vibration in SRM. In this paper, several controls for acoustic noise and vibration reduction are shown. The acoustic noise and vibration reduction from the experiment are also compared in each method.
original research article

Effect of Curing Current on Stiffness and Damping Properties of Magnetorheological Elastomers

Norhiwani Hapipi, Saiful Amri Mazlan, Siti Aishah Abdul Aziz, Ubaidillah Ubaidillah, Norzilawati Mohamad, Izyan Iryani Mohamad Yazid, Seung-Bok Choi

In this study, the viscoelastic effects of the magnetic field strength imposed for curing process on the stiffness and damping properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are experimentally investigated. In order to observe the effect, three different samples of MRE are fabricated by imposing curing current of 0.1 A, 0.3 A and 0.5 A which is equivalent to the magnetic field of 70 mT, 309 mT, and 345 mT, respectively. All samples consist of 30% silicone rubber and 70% carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) by weight percentages. After observing the morphological images via SEM, the dynamic performances of these samples, such as storage modulus and loss factor are evaluated and compared as a function of the magnetic field intensity or oscillation frequency. It is shown that the sample cured at 0.5A exhibits the highest storage modulus in the frequency domain. In addition, MR effects of three samples are identified, and it is found that the sample cured at 0.5A shows the highest absolute and relative MR effect.
review article

Transportation System Development and Challenge in Jakarta Metropolitan Area, Indonesia

Muhammad Farda, Harun al-Rasyid Lubis

Jakarta Metropolitan Area has been facing problem in terms of congestion and its chain effect, namely time value loss, high fuel consumption, and high greenhouse gas emission. The problem is caused by many factors, namely high population, high use of the private vehicle, inadequate current public transport supply, urban sprawling, etc. The government, both City and National Government has been formulating and implementing a plan to develop sustainable transportation that serves the citizen of Jakarta Metropolitan Area. This included the operation of Jakarta Bus Rapid Transit, KRL Commuter Line and Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit. In the near future, both inner city and metropolitan light rapid transit will also operate in this area. This paper reviews the development and challenge of the transportation system in Jakarta Metropolitan Area and proposes a recommendation to optimize the current transport system. In general, there are three components that should be considered to achieve sustainable transportation. Those components are i) strong transport authority, ii) integrated master plan, iii) Sustainable Resources, Funding, and Financing.
original research article

Train Localization using Unscented Kalman Filter - Based Sensor Fusion

Ismail Faruqi, Muhammad Brahma Waluya, Yul Yunazwin Nazaruddin, Tua Agustinus Tamba

This paper presents an application of sensor fusion methods based on Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) technique for solving train localization problem in rail systems. The paper first reports the development of a laboratory-scale rail system simulator which is equipped with various onboard and wayside sensors that are used to detect and locate the train vehicle movements in the rail track. Due to the low precision measurement data obtained by each individual sensor, a sensor fusion method based on the UKF technique is implemented to fuse the measurement data from several sensors. Experimental results which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed UKF-based sensor fusion method for solving the train localization problem is also reported.
Vol 1, Issue 1

Article is not available

original research article

Structural Optimizations of a 12/8 Switched Reluctance Motor using a Genetic Algorithm

Umar Sholahuddin, Agus Purwadi, Yanuarsyah Haroen

Structural design optimization of 12/8 switched reluctance motor using single objectives genetic algorithms is explored. The objective of this optimization is to maximize the output torque using four parameters, namely rotor width of tooth root, rotor width of tooth tip, half of stator tooth width, and stator outer diameter. The result is the optimized motor has higher average torque of 25% compared to the initial design. The evaluation of motor model is finite element method. The 12/8 switched reluctance motor will be applied in a mini electric vehicle.
review article

On the Lightweight Structural Design for Electric Road and Railway Vehicles using Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites – A Review

Faizal Arifurrahman, Bentang Arief Budiman, Muhammad Aziz

The main challenging issues of vehicles with electric propulsion are on the limited energy source due to relatively low battery capacity and low excitation of power traction. They can be tackled down by designing lightweight structures for frameworks and bodies of the vehicles. Composite materials which have a high strength to weight ratio are the best choice for designing and manufacturing the lightweight structures. A review of recent progress in utilization of the composite materials for electric vehicle structures is presented. It focuses on how the structures can support the electric vehicles to compete with internal combustion engine vehicles regarding their performance on the road. The utilization of composite material for structures of railway vehicles is also summarized. Furthermore, discussions are extended to the key technologies required for applying the composite materials in Indonesia such as composite–metal joint technology, fiber and matrix production technology, and numerical analysis competency for modeling the composite.
original research article

Mapping of Inbound Flows in Supply Chain of Lithium-ion Industry in Indonesia

Wahyudi Sutopo, Roni Zakaria, Ari Wardayanti, Fakhrina Fahma

The demand for lithium battery is currently high from the consumer side due to the widespread application of lithium-ion battery for electronics (laptops, notebooks, mobile phones, street lighting) and electric vehicles (electric cars and electric motors). In Indonesia, the research and industrialization on lithium-ion battery have been conducted to develop products such as for electric vehicles and street lighting. On the other hand, the relationship between suppliers, producers, distribution channels, and consumers has not been mapped. This mapping is intended to provide an overview of the strength of suppliers, involved manufacturers, and to determine the readiness of the value chain of lithium-ion battery to perform mass production. The approach in the mapping uses primary data and secondary data for the initial stage of inbound flows in supply chain of lithium-ion industry in Indonesia. Primary data are obtained from the questionnaires, which adopted from the value chain lithium-ion battery research in USA adjusted for Indonesian context. Meanwhile, the secondary data derived from literature reviews. The respondents in the study are 11 institutions consisting of manufacturers and R&D of lithium-ion battery in Indonesia. The results obtained are supplier mapping that provides the flow of lithium-ion battery, cell, module, and pack as well as the producers and consumers. The results could also be utilized to identify the valuable metrics in the supply chain of lithium battery industry.
original research article

Optimization of Bus Body Frame Structure for Weight Minimizing with Constraint of Natural Frequency using Adaptive Single-Objective Method

Ismoyo Haryanto, Fuad Arief Raharjo, Ojo Kurdi, Gunawan Dwi Haryadi, Sigit Puji Santosa, Leonardo Gunawan

The objective of this work is to analyze and optimize a bus frame structure using Finite Element Method in dynamic conditions. The bus body geometry was obtained directly from the three-dimensional Computer-Aided Design files. The optimization was conducted to determine the minimum weight of the bus frame structure without violating the specified natural frequency constraints. The design variable is the thickness of the bus body frame. In present study, Adaptive Single Objective method was chosen as an optimizer method. The results show that the structural weight of the bus frame can be reduced about 8% without changing its dynamic characteristic.
original research article

Supplier Selection Model of the Lithium-ion Battery using Fuzzy AHP and Analysis of BOCR

Ari Wardayanti, Roni Zakaria, Wahyudi Sutopo, Bendjamin Benny Louhenapessy

Although the demand for the lithium-ion battery for electronic consumers and electric vehicles in Indonesia is high, there is no supplier coming from the local manufacturer. The proper selection of suppliers is required by some lithium-ion battery manufacturers (cells, modules, and packs), and Research and Development (R&D) center of the lithium-ion battery with the consideration not only in benefits and cost but also in opportunities and risks. It is important that experts assist the manufacturers and R&D to procure the lithium-ion (materials and cells), through transparent methods that seek a quantitative model to select the right supplier. The main objective of this study is to propose an analytical approach to select suppliers which incorporate Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks (BOCR) concept that comply with the characteristics of the lithium-ion battery industries. A fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model is developed by accommodating the vagueness and inaccuracies of expert elections. The result of this research is development of the model obtained from 2 questionnaires given to the expert. Questionnaire 1 was made for the determination of criteria and sub-criteria, while Questionnaire 2 aims to perform pairwise comparisons of existing criteria and sub-criteria. In the selection of the lithium-ion battery suppliers, there are 11 criteria and 40 sub-criteria which are considered. Those criteria are divided into 4 merits and known for their respective global priorities.
Issue is not available in this Volume

Editor in Chief

Dr. Ir. Agus Purwadi MT

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

Co-Editor in Chief

Ir. Sigit Puji Santosa, MSME, Sc.D.

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

Editorial Advisory Board

Prof. Ade Sjafruddin

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

Prof. Yanuarsyah

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

Prof. Dr. Joni Arliansyah

Universitas Sriwijaya, Indonesia

Dr. Muhammad Muntaha

Institut Teknologi Kalimantan, Indonesia

Semuel Y. R. Rompis, Ph.D.

Universitas Sam Ratulangi, Indonesia

Dr. –Ing. Ismoyo Haryanto

Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

Dr. –Ing. Puguh B Prakoso

Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Indonesia

Dr. Eng. Puspita Dirgahayani

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

Associate Editor

Prof. Yul Yunazwin

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

Dr. Eng. Bentang Arief Budiman

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

Dr. Joga Dharma

Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia

Prof. Muhammad Nizam

Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

Dr. Eng. Ferry Iskandar

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

Dr. Ibnu Syabri

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

Editorial Assistant

Dita Novizayanti, S.Si.

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

Before Submission

Submission of an article in journal denotes that authors confirmed it had not been published, nor that it is under consideration for publication elsewhere. Please make sure your article follows the guideline as written in the template here. The submitted article shall be written in English. If required, proof-reading service is provided by the publisher at the cost of USD 300 or IDR 3.000.000. Please contact service@unijourn.com for further information.

Types of article

This journal accepts original research articles, review articles, technical notes, and short communication articles.

Submission checklist

Please check the list below for a final check before submitting your article to the journal for a review process. Make sure that the following items are present in your submission:

  • One author designated as the corresponding author shall provide complete contact detail, including full postal and e-mail addresses.
  • All necessary files have been uploaded in the manuscript:

    • Keywords are written in an alphabetic manner
    • All Figures including relevant captions and citation (if applicable)
    • All Tables including relevant captions and citation (if applicable)
    • Supplemental files (if applicable)
  • The article has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked' to avoid unnecessary errors.
  • All references are cited in the text with the correct format.
  • The article should contain nothing which might imply that any race, sex, belief, culture, or any other characteristics is superior to another and should use inclusive language which acknowledges diversity and promotes equality throughout.

Please submit your documents by Unijourn journal system. The documents must include:

  • Cover letter including statements of conflict of interest and free of plagiarism.
  • Manuscript in Microsoft Word or Open Office File format.

The manuscript that does not follow the guideline will be rejected.

Review Process

The submitted article will be reviewed by experts in each field through the Double-Blind Peer Review process to assure the high standard journal quality. Double-Blind Peer Review means the reviewer's identity will be concealed from the author(s), and vice versa, throughout the review process. To facilitate this, the Editorial Board of IJSTT will prepare the manuscript in a way that does not give away the author(s) identity.

Reviewers will recommend to the editorial board whether the submitted article can be accepted, revised, or rejected. However, the final decision will be determined by the editorial board. If the decision requires authors to revise their manuscript, the authors will be given a chance to revise it for two weeks. Additional time for revision might be given based on author request.

After Acceptance

The accepted article will be published online after editing process. To assure fast publication, the authors will be given last chance to do proof-reading prior publication for two days. Please note the authors cannot make substantial correction at this stage.

Copyright Transfer Agreement

IJSTT is an open-access journal in which articles are available to be accessed openly to reach a broad and wide audience. Authors must understand that if an article is accepted for publication, copyright publishing of the article shall be assigned or transferred to International Journal of Sustainable Transportation Technology (IJSTT) and Unijourn as the publisher of the journal. Upon the acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a Copyright Transfer Agreement. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with the Copyright Transfer Agreement form in editable format.

Submission of an article implies that the work is not under consideration for publication elsewhere and has not been previously published in other journal, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright holder, that the publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out.

IJSTT makes every effort to ensure that no wrong or misleading data, opinions, or statements be published in the journal. In any way, the contents of the articles and advertisements published in the IJSTT are sole and exclusive responsibility of their respective authors and advertisers.

See a sample of Copyright Transfer Agreement form here. The form should be signed electronically.

Ethics in Publishing

Authorship and contributorship

Credit of authorship should be based on the contribution provided by each author to the design, concept, or interpretation of the study. The order of names in the author can be decided upon each author's contribution to the article.

Originality and concurrent publication

Authors need to ensure that the article submitted is entirely original work, and any references used within the manuscript, including the author's previous work, are appropriately cited. When using published figures or tables, please make sure that permission from the original publisher has been obtained prior to submission.

Conflicts of interest / competing interest and funding sources

Authors must declare any potential conflict of interest in the statement of conflict of interest. Full disclosure is required for the journal editor team to inform their editorial decisions. Additionally, authors must fully acknowledge all funding sources, including research funding, direct or indirect financial support, the supply of equipment or materials, etc. which support the work.

Post-publication discussions and corrections

Upon discovery of inaccuracy or error in the published work, the author is obligated to notify the journal editor immediately and cooperate to correct or retract the article.

Plagiarism Check

Plagiarism screening will be conducted by IJSTT Editorial Board using Grammarly® Plagiarism Checker and Plagiarisma.net plagiarism screening service.

Article Processing Charges (APCs) and Article Submission Charges

The article will be published online after the editing process. All publication service is sponsored by National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology (NCSTT). Thus, this journal does not charge article processing charges (APCs) and submission charges.

Open Access Policy

All articles published in IJSTT provide immediate open access to the full-text articles online. Open access means making all articles freely available via the internet, giving permission for any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full text of the articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any lawful purpose without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. Open Access Policy is adapted by IJSTT to aim a great global exchange of knowledge. These definitions are taken from the Budapest Open Access Initiative's definition of Open Access.


International Journal of Sustainable Transportation Technology (IJSTT) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Authors submitting an article to IJSTT must agree that the article, if editorially accepted for publication, shall be licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International, of which CC BY-ND 4.0, was developed to facilitate open access.

In the following, we provide the licenses’ summaries as they can be found on the Creative Commons website. The Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International provides the following summary (where ‘you’ equals ‘the user’):

You are free to:

Share—copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.

The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

Under the following terms:

Attribution—You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

NoDerivatives—If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.

No additional restrictions—You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.


You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public omain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.

No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.

Please note: for the terms set in italics in the summary above further details are provided on the Creative Commons web page from which the summary is taken. See further details here.

Digital Archiving Policy

IJSTT uses the digital archiving policy of IPI/Portal Garuda.