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  3. Volume 5, Issue 2

International Journal of Sustainable Transportation Technology

Volume 5, Issue 2

review article

Cellular Structure Design and Manufacturability for Electric Vehicle: A Review

Asep Indra Komara, Bagus Budiwantoro, Rachman Setiawan

Pages 70-79

Cellular structures can be classified into foams, honeycombs, and lattice structures. Each type of structure has its characteristics. Various applications of cellular structures can be found in aviation, bioengineering, automotive, and other fields. In the automotive sector, cellular structures have been used for structural applications and impact- absorbing modules, for example, for protecting the electric vehicle battery pack against impact loading. The challenges that limit the application of cellular structures today include systematically designing pseudo-random cellular structures, assessing which cellular patterns are most suitable for a particular application, and mastery of manufacturing technology for efficient mass production of cellular structures. In this paper, the authors examine the state-of-the-art technology in geometry, applications, and manufacturing of various cellular structures carried out by researchers to obtain an overview of the current conditions for further development of these cellular structures. Limited manufacturing capabilities encourage researchers to design an optimal cellular structure to be applied to a particular function but have high manufacturability. The development of additive manufacturing technology has provided opportunities for researchers to produce an optimal cellular structure commercially soon.
original research article

Endurance Testing of the Electric Vehicle that Converted from the Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle

Yohanes Gunawan, Nina Konitat Supriatna, Arfie Ikhsan Firmansyah, Slamet Slamet, Nanda Avianto Wicaksono, Khalif Ahadi, Naufal Rizqi Fadhilah

Pages 61-69

In Indonesia, to accelerate the use of electric vehicles (EVs), one of the programs to do is the conversion of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to EVs. This paper presents an overview of the endurance test for ICE vehicles that converted to EVs as far as 10,000 km to see their performance. We used three types of motorcycles, two types of batteries, and two types of passenger load. To get a distance of 10,000 km, the tested vehicle travels about 200 km on 4 different routes every day, where each route has different characteristics of road conditions. After getting the 10,000 km testing, all the types of the electric motor are in good condition and have no minor obstacles. Technically, several improvements need to be done to succeed this program, i.e., wiring and socket that are applied in this program need the waterproof wiring and socket, the converter part needs to be taken care of to avoid rust, and the placement of electrical components that have air conditioning fins (especially inverters) needs to be ensured that they will be exposed to air when the motor is used.
original research article

Digital Twin Model Development for Autonomous Tram Localization

Yolanda Tania Mulyadi, M Rifqi Rafian Putra, Yul Yunazwin Nazaruddin, Miranti Indar Mandasari

Pages 55-60

The rapid advancement of information technologies led to the rapid growth of various aspects, one of which is autonomous vehicles. Digital twin technology is being frequently developed in autonomous vehicle research, enabling real-time remote monitoring and control of the vehicle’s physical assets. This technology can reduce maintenance costs and risks as well as prevent and speed up accident management. This paper proposes a digital twin model for the autonomous tram, one of the vehicles widely explored due to its safety, low emissions, and high capacity. In this research, the proposed digital twin model is utilized to virtually represent the kinematics of the tram prototype in a 2D model from data sent via Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol, enabling real- time remote control with low-band consumption. Virtual representation of the tram prototype is gathered via physical sensors and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) as the virtual model and controlled by a Stanley controller. The results confirmed that the use of the proposed digital twin model could remotely monitor and control the autonomous tram prototype in real-time conditions.
original research article

Resin-based Brake Pad with Fleece Fiber and Its Mechanical Properties

Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto, Siti Nur Hofifah, Risti Ragadhita, Meli Fiandini, Dwi Novia Al Husaeni, Rina Maryanti

Pages 51-54

Fleece has strong and good fiber characteristics, which are needed to manufacture brake pads. This study aims to analyze the fleece performance as a friction component material in brake pads. The fleece was initially pre-treated by heating for 4 hours at 150°C and cut into 2 mm sizes. The epoxy resin and hardener were mixed with a ratio of 1:1. The 0.5 g pre-treatment fleece was added to the resin mixture, so the total mass of the resin-fleece mixture was 12.5 g. The mixture was then molded into a cube mold (dimensions of 2.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 cm). The brake pad was dried at room temperature for a day. The characterizations were done using the compressive strength and puncture strength test. The results showed that the fleece brake pad has good mechanical characteristics, demonstrated by the pressure of 215 MPa, which can still be held by the surface of the fleece brake pad. The puncture test showed an average puncture of 76.43%. Overall, the fleece shows good performance on the brake pads. Fleece has many minerals that make it as powerful fiber characteristics and prospective as a friction component material on the brake pads. This research is expected to provide new information about organic materials for friction materials in brake pads.
original research article

Effect of Sustainable Infrastructure and Service Delivery on Sustainable Tourism: Application of Kruskal Wallis Test (Non-parametric)

Gowhar Ahmad Wani, V Nagaraj

Pages 38-50

This study examined the effect of sustainable infrastructure and service delivery on sustainable tourism in Kashmir Valley through the five main destinations by covering essential stakeholders. At present, tourism potential nations face destination sustainability issues in various junctures of the tourism sector. Therefore, international agencies and nations focus on sustainable tourism through sustainable transport infrastructure, other factors and improved service delivery. Few studies underlined the role of sustainable infrastructure in service quality and their collective impact on sustainability without empirical evidence at the destination level. At this juncture, the current study presents the summaries of empirical investigation of the effect of sustainable transport infrastructure and services delivery on sustainable tourism in Kashmir Valley. For analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test (non-parametric) is applied to assess the variation in sustainable tourism based upon the performance of sustainable infrastructure and service delivery at destinations. The application of the Kruskal-Wallis independent samples tests duly confirmed the significant results. Sustainable tourism differs by transport infrastructure performance, other elements and service quality of the destinations. Therefore, it is to be stated that poor functioning of transport infrastructure and other basic structures adversely affects service delivery and raises sustainability issues at destinations. It asserts that the comprehensive sustainable transport infrastructure, water supply and drainage, health and sanitation, solid and liquid waste management are highly required to combat environmental issues and ensure sustainability at destinations. The findings of the study have significant policy implications to promote green infrastructure, quality services and development of sustainable tourism at destinations.