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International Journal of Sustainable Transportation Technology

Keyword: Lithium-ion battery

original research article

Supplier Selection Model of the Lithium-ion Battery using Fuzzy AHP and Analysis of BOCR

Ari Wardayanti, Roni Zakaria, Wahyudi Sutopo, Bendjamin Benny Louhenapessy

Pages 1-8

Although the demand for the lithium-ion battery for electronic consumers and electric vehicles in Indonesia is high, there is no supplier coming from the local manufacturer. The proper selection of suppliers is required by some lithium-ion battery manufacturers (cells, modules, and packs), and Research and Development (R&D) center of the lithium-ion battery with the consideration not only in benefits and cost but also in opportunities and risks. It is important that experts assist the manufacturers and R&D to procure the lithium-ion (materials and cells), through transparent methods that seek a quantitative model to select the right supplier. The main objective of this study is to propose an analytical approach to select suppliers which incorporate Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks (BOCR) concept that comply with the characteristics of the lithium-ion battery industries. A fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model is developed by accommodating the vagueness and inaccuracies of expert elections. The result of this research is development of the model obtained from 2 questionnaires given to the expert. Questionnaire 1 was made for the determination of criteria and sub-criteria, while Questionnaire 2 aims to perform pairwise comparisons of existing criteria and sub-criteria. In the selection of the lithium-ion battery suppliers, there are 11 criteria and 40 sub-criteria which are considered. Those criteria are divided into 4 merits and known for their respective global priorities.
original research article

Mapping of Inbound Flows in Supply Chain of Lithium-ion Industry in Indonesia

Wahyudi Sutopo, Roni Zakaria, Ari Wardayanti, Fakhrina Fahma

Pages 15-20

The demand for lithium battery is currently high from the consumer side due to the widespread application of lithium-ion battery for electronics (laptops, notebooks, mobile phones, street lighting) and electric vehicles (electric cars and electric motors). In Indonesia, the research and industrialization on lithium-ion battery have been conducted to develop products such as for electric vehicles and street lighting. On the other hand, the relationship between suppliers, producers, distribution channels, and consumers has not been mapped. This mapping is intended to provide an overview of the strength of suppliers, involved manufacturers, and to determine the readiness of the value chain of lithium-ion battery to perform mass production. The approach in the mapping uses primary data and secondary data for the initial stage of inbound flows in supply chain of lithium-ion industry in Indonesia. Primary data are obtained from the questionnaires, which adopted from the value chain lithium-ion battery research in USA adjusted for Indonesian context. Meanwhile, the secondary data derived from literature reviews. The respondents in the study are 11 institutions consisting of manufacturers and R&D of lithium-ion battery in Indonesia. The results obtained are supplier mapping that provides the flow of lithium-ion battery, cell, module, and pack as well as the producers and consumers. The results could also be utilized to identify the valuable metrics in the supply chain of lithium battery industry.
original research article

Al Ions Doping Effect on The Diffusion Coefficient and Capacity of Li4Ti5O12 (Lithium Titanate, LTO) in Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

Slamet Priyono, Lufthansyah Daniswara, Rahma Alfia Khoiri, Yayuk Astuti

Pages 51-57

Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode doped with Al ions with varying concentrations (Al = 0; 0.005; 0.015; 0.03; 0.045) was successfully synthesized using the sol-gel method. Al-doped LTO samples were obtained through the sintering of gel at 850oC for 4 hours under a normal atmosphere. Electrochemical performance such as charge-discharge capacity and diffusion coefficient were characterized using an automatic battery cycler. The cells consist of electrode sheets (LTO doping Al) as a working electrode, lithium metal as the counter electrode, Celgard film as the separator, and LiPF6 as an electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry test results show that a greater scan rate results in decreased capacity and greater polarization voltage. In addition, an increase in concentrations used in Al doping on LTO causes capacity, and the diffusion coefficient tends to decrease.