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International Journal of Sustainable Transportation Technology

Keyword: Safety

review article

Battery Cells for Electric Vehicles

Putri Nur Halimah, Samuel Rahardian, Bentang Arief Budiman

Pages 54-57

The shifting trend of conventional to the electric drivetrain in automotive industries makes batteries become the most favorable energy storage. There are three types of battery cells that are commonly used for electric vehicles i.e., cylindrical cells, pouch cells, and prismatic cells. The use of active material such as lithium-ion in the battery of electric vehicles could bring some issues related to the safety field. For that reason, comprehensive research on battery failure analysis needs to be conducted. This paper reviews the recent progress of the use of battery cells in electric vehicles and some challenges which must be considered to assure their safety. There are a lot of studies on battery failure analysis, which mainly focuses on the appearance of a short circuit as the main cause of the thermal runaway event. Several proposals on predicting short circuits in the battery due to various loading are comprehensively discussed. Those research results can be considered to establish regulations in designing battery protectors.
original research article

Foldable Front Child-Seat Design for Scooter Motorcycle: Strength Analysis Under Static and Dynamic Loading

Siti Zulaikah, Wahyu Haykal Rahmanda, Farid Triawan

Pages 37-44

Nowadays, motorcycle is considered as one of the most practical transportation mode in Indonesia. It has become a common practice that a motorcycle rider often brings a small child using a child seat while riding. However, the used child seat is usually not safe and can easily fall off from the motorcycle due to the lack of safety consideration. Moreover, it is very risky to ride a motorcycle with a small child, knowing that motorcycles are the highest contributor to road traffic accidents. For this reason, this paper proposes a primary design idea of a foldable child safety-seat that can be placed on the front part of a scooter motorcycle. This design is also completed with strength analysis to evaluate the components’ safety for children under five years old with a weight of around 50 kg. The strength calculation of the frame is done by a theoretical approach under static and dynamic loading. According to the analysis, the proposed child seat design could provide a factor of safety of more than 3.6 for static loading and 1.6 for dynamic loading. This study is expected to be used as a reference for developing a more reliable child safety- seat for motorcycle rider in Indonesia.
original research article

Portable Child Seat Design for Motorcycle in the Front and Back Positions

Farid Triawan, Putri Angelica, Desinta Dewi Ramadani, Pusva Juliana

Pages 63-72

In Indonesia, it is a common practice for people in the urban area to bring children when riding a motorcycle. This habit raises a safety issue for the children as well as the motorcycle rider. For this reason, an additional child seat that allows the child to sit safely is demanded. This study aims to produce an innovative design of an additional child seat for a motorcycle that is portable, safe, durable, easy to use, and comfortable. The seat is designed so that it can be installed at the front and back sides of the rider in the motorcycle. The proposed model is designed to have a mass of between 0.6 to 3 kilograms. It is equipped with a seatbelt and head-protection pad. To evaluate the structural strength, theoretical analyses of solid mechanics were performed under static and fatigue loading conditions. As a result, the static safety factor of the child seat design for the front position was found to be 3.67. On the other hand, the fatigue safety factor of the child seat design for the front position was found to be 2.26, which is considered an infinite life. For the back position, the fatigue safety factor was found to be 2.36. The proposed design is expected to give a contribution to the development of innovative devices in transportation technology.