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International Journal of Sustainable Transportation Technology

Volume 1, Issue 1

original research article

Structural Optimizations of a 12/8 Switched Reluctance Motor using a Genetic Algorithm

Umar Sholahuddin, Agus Purwadi, Yanuarsyah Haroen

Pages 30-34

Structural design optimization of 12/8 switched reluctance motor using single objectives genetic algorithms is explored. The objective of this optimization is to maximize the output torque using four parameters, namely rotor width of tooth root, rotor width of tooth tip, half of stator tooth width, and stator outer diameter. The result is the optimized motor has higher average torque of 25% compared to the initial design. The evaluation of motor model is finite element method. The 12/8 switched reluctance motor will be applied in a mini electric vehicle.
review article

On the Lightweight Structural Design for Electric Road and Railway Vehicles using Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites–A Review

Faizal Arifurrahman, Bentang Arief Budiman, Muhammad Aziz

Pages 21-29

The main challenging issues of vehicles with electric propulsion are on the limited energy source due to relatively low battery capacity and low excitation of power traction. They can be tackled down by designing lightweight structures for frameworks and bodies of the vehicles. Composite materials which have a high strength to weight ratio are the best choice for designing and manufacturing the lightweight structures. A review of recent progress in utilization of the composite materials for electric vehicle structures is presented. It focuses on how the structures can support the electric vehicles to compete with internal combustion engine vehicles regarding their performance on the road. The utilization of composite material for structures of railway vehicles is also summarized. Furthermore, discussions are extended to the key technologies required for applying the composite materials in Indonesia such as composite–metal joint technology, fiber and matrix production technology, and numerical analysis competency for modeling the composite.
original research article

Mapping of Inbound Flows in Supply Chain of Lithium-ion Industry in Indonesia

Wahyudi Sutopo, Roni Zakaria, Ari Wardayanti, Fakhrina Fahma

Pages 15-20

The demand for lithium battery is currently high from the consumer side due to the widespread application of lithium-ion battery for electronics (laptops, notebooks, mobile phones, street lighting) and electric vehicles (electric cars and electric motors). In Indonesia, the research and industrialization on lithium-ion battery have been conducted to develop products such as for electric vehicles and street lighting. On the other hand, the relationship between suppliers, producers, distribution channels, and consumers has not been mapped. This mapping is intended to provide an overview of the strength of suppliers, involved manufacturers, and to determine the readiness of the value chain of lithium-ion battery to perform mass production. The approach in the mapping uses primary data and secondary data for the initial stage of inbound flows in supply chain of lithium-ion industry in Indonesia. Primary data are obtained from the questionnaires, which adopted from the value chain lithium-ion battery research in USA adjusted for Indonesian context. Meanwhile, the secondary data derived from literature reviews. The respondents in the study are 11 institutions consisting of manufacturers and R&D of lithium-ion battery in Indonesia. The results obtained are supplier mapping that provides the flow of lithium-ion battery, cell, module, and pack as well as the producers and consumers. The results could also be utilized to identify the valuable metrics in the supply chain of lithium battery industry.
original research article

Optimization of Bus Body Frame Structure for Weight Minimizing with Constraint of Natural Frequency using Adaptive Single-Objective Method

Ismoyo Haryanto, Fuad Arief Raharjo, Ojo Kurdi, Gunawan Dwi Haryadi, Sigit Puji Santosa, Leonardo Gunawan

Pages 9-14

The objective of this work is to analyze and optimize a bus frame structure using Finite Element Method in dynamic conditions. The bus body geometry was obtained directly from the three-dimensional Computer-Aided Design files. The optimization was conducted to determine the minimum weight of the bus frame structure without violating the specified natural frequency constraints. The design variable is the thickness of the bus body frame. In present study, Adaptive Single Objective method was chosen as an optimizer method. The results show that the structural weight of the bus frame can be reduced about 8% without changing its dynamic characteristic.
original research article

Supplier Selection Model of the Lithium-ion Battery using Fuzzy AHP and Analysis of BOCR

Ari Wardayanti, Roni Zakaria, Wahyudi Sutopo, Bendjamin Benny Louhenapessy

Pages 1-8

Although the demand for the lithium-ion battery for electronic consumers and electric vehicles in Indonesia is high, there is no supplier coming from the local manufacturer. The proper selection of suppliers is required by some lithium-ion battery manufacturers (cells, modules, and packs), and Research and Development (R&D) center of the lithium-ion battery with the consideration not only in benefits and cost but also in opportunities and risks. It is important that experts assist the manufacturers and R&D to procure the lithium-ion (materials and cells), through transparent methods that seek a quantitative model to select the right supplier. The main objective of this study is to propose an analytical approach to select suppliers which incorporate Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks (BOCR) concept that comply with the characteristics of the lithium-ion battery industries. A fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model is developed by accommodating the vagueness and inaccuracies of expert elections. The result of this research is development of the model obtained from 2 questionnaires given to the expert. Questionnaire 1 was made for the determination of criteria and sub-criteria, while Questionnaire 2 aims to perform pairwise comparisons of existing criteria and sub-criteria. In the selection of the lithium-ion battery suppliers, there are 11 criteria and 40 sub-criteria which are considered. Those criteria are divided into 4 merits and known for their respective global priorities.